83% of respondents report increase in Intimate Partner Violence in their communities due to COVID-19
Household food insecurity is among the strongest predictors of exposure to gender-based violence
Women’s access to jobs protects them from increase in exposure to gender-based violence due to COVID-19
Only about 1 in 10 Indonesians aged 18 to 40 and interested in migrating abroad know the requirements for documented migration.
Gender differences in the propensity to become undocumented migrants may be driven by time constraints due to higher care burden women face
An additional public preschool per 1,000 children raises the employment of mothers of eligible-aged children by 6.9 percentage points, an increase of about 13%.
Availability of public preschools also has positive, but smaller effects on mothers with children younger than eligible age. Women with younger children may take into account future childcare options when making decisions about work.
Private preschools, which cost more on average and have greater variability in terms of quality compared to public preschools, have no impact on women’s employment.
Low female labor force participation is linked with unsatisfied childcare needs.
Urban women without access to informal childcare forego approximately US$1,300 in earnings due to prolonged absence from the labor market.
After childbirth, women without access to informal childcare are more likely to switch into, and remain in, unpaid family work.
For women who return to work, childcare constraints are associated with a switch into less lucrative occupations.